The tree can also be found in more temperate regions of Australia. The bases of European white birch leaves are blunt and the tips long and pointed. [25] The removal of bark was at one time so widespread that Carl Linnaeus expressed his concern for the survival of the woodlands. "Lack of Evidence for Impact of the European White Birch, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-3.RLTS.T194831A2363997.en, "HOSTS – a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants", International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, "Suomen kansallistunnukset (Finland's national emblems)", "Perinteinen saunavihta (Traditional sauna vihta)". The European white birch, as its name suggests is a species native to Europe and some parts of Asia. It is also distinguished cytologically, silver birch being diploid (with two sets of chromosomes), whereas downy birch is tetraploid (four sets of chromosomes). European white birch, silver birch, warty birch, weeping birch. Its drooping branches give it a "weeping willow" appearance, and together with its vertically fissured bark make this tree a visually interesting addition to the garden. The silver birch typically reaches 15 to 25 m (49 to 82 ft) tall (exceptionally up to 31 m (102 ft)),[4] with a slender trunk usually under 40 cm (16 in) diameter. [1] The synonym Betula oycowiensis (as B. oycoviensis) was previously listed on the Red List as vulnerable,[22] though it is now considered a synonym of B. pendula subsp. This deciduous tree has a pyramidal form when young, maturing into a rounded crown with arched branches and drooping branchlets. This applies particularly to acidic or nutrient-poor soils. Native Area: Europe, Asia In terms of genetic structure, the trees are quite different, but do, however, occasionally hybridise. The Birch is botanically called Betula pendula. As this blog makes clear, it is very pest prone, and since gardeners mostly stopped using strong insecticides, it is very difficult to keep a tree alive for more than a few years. The immature male catkins are present during the winter, but the female catkins develop in the spring, soon after the leaves unfurl. Also known as Weeping birch or European white birch, the sliver birch was once used extensively in landscapes, but its high susceptibility to the bronze birch borer has limited its use in more recent years. In the spring, large quantities of sap rise up the trunk and this can be tapped. European white birch was once used extensively in landscapes, but its high susceptibility to the bronze birch borer has limited its use in more recent years. In Scandinavia and other regions of northern Europe, it is grown for forest products such as lumber and pulp, as well as for aesthetic purposes and ecosystem services. [9] It is naturalised and locally invasive in parts of Canada. Aphids, leaf miner and birch skeletonizer may also occur. It makes a good firewood, but is quickly consumed by the flames. The Tree is a deciduous tree, it will be 5 - 25 m (16 - 82 ft) high. Betula pendula is a deciduous Tree growing to 20 m (65ft) by 10 m (32ft) at a fast rate. The Japanese monarch birch (B. maximowicziana) is a valuable timber tree of Japan, especially in the plywood industry. Toothy, diamond-shaped foliage emerges glossy green in spring. [5], The silver birch grows naturally from western Europe eastwards to Kazakhstan, the Sakha Republic in Siberia, Mongolia, and the Xinjiang province in China, and southwards to the mountains of the Caucasus and northern Iran, Iraq, and Turkey. Watch for leaf spot problems. SEE PRICING & PLANS. Use up and down arrow keys to explore within a submenu. Light Needs. Download 1,048 European White Birch Tree Stock Photos for FREE or amazingly low rates! 'Youngii' has dense, twiggy, weeping growth with no central leader and requires being grafted onto a standard stem of normal silver birch. We studied the between-tree and within-tree variation in the composition and content of foliar low-molecular-weight phenolics (LMWP) of European white birch (Betula pendula Roth) during the unfolding of vegetative buds and during early leaf development. You can search, browse, and learn more about the plants in our living collections by visiting our BRAHMS website. [citation needed]. The trunk is slender, with white bark featuring black diamond-shaped lenticels. It is hardy to zone (UK) 2. The small, 1- to 2-mm winged seeds ripen in late summer on pendulous, cylindrical catkins 2 to 4 cm (0.8 to 1.6 in) long and 7 mm (0.3 in) broad. Simple, alternate leaves; 1 to 3 inches long. This tree has an attractive pendulous habit. Dark green leaves are rhomboid in shape. European white birch was once used extensively in landscapes, but its high susceptibility to the bronze birch borer has limited its use in more recent years. It is sometimes used as a pioneer and nurse tree elsewhere. [17], The larvae of a large number of species of butterflies, moths, and other insects feed on the leaves and other parts of the silver birch. [10], Three subspecies of silver birch are accepted:[11][1], B. pendula is distinguished from the related B. pubescens, the other common European birch, in having hairless, warty shoots (hairy and without warts in downy birch), more triangular leaves with double serration on the margins (more ovoid and with single serrations in downy birch), and whiter bark often with scattered black fissures (greyer, less fissured, in downy birch). [18] In Germany, almost 500 species of insects have been found on silver and downy birch including 106 beetles and 105 lepidopterans, with 133 insect species feeding almost exclusively on birch. Use left and right arrow keys to navigate between menus and submenus. [4][6], Silver birch can easily be confused with the similar downy birch (Betula pubescens). The following menu has 3 levels. Yet, downy birches are characterised by hairy leaves and young shoots, whereas the same parts on silver birch are hairless. Betula pendula, commonly known as silver birch, warty birch, European white birch, or East Asian white birch, is a species of tree in the family Betulaceae, native to Europe and parts of Asia, though in southern Europe, it is only found at higher altitudes. Infected trees exhibit symptoms such as brown blotches or spots on the leaves, severe defoliation, a weakened immune system and stunted leaf … [7] In the southern parts of its range, it is mainly found in mountainous regions. New foliage has lustrous, vivid purple coloring that is retained through the season. See this plant in the following landscape: Rock & Water Garden Cultivars / Varieties: 'Crispa' Betula pendula, commonly called silver birch or European white birch, is a graceful medium-sized tree with slender pendulous branches and attractive bark. European weeping birch is, true to its common name, native to Europe, but found in patchy locales around New England. [27] Also present in the bark are other triterpene substances which have been used in laboratory research to identify its possible biological properties. It is a medium sized tree, typically growing between 15-25 meters tall. In midsummer, the female catkins mature and the male catkins expand and release pollen, and wind pollination takes place. [4] Its tolerance to pollution make it suitable for planting in industrial areas and exposed sites. Fenusa pusilla, on the other hand prefers gray birch or gray birch hybrids. Slabs of bark are used for making roof shingles and strips are used for handicrafts such as wooden footwear and small containers. "Silver Birch" redirects here. The European White Birch is a handsome small tree, growing rapidly to 15 or 20 feet tall, and ultimately reaching 30 to 40 feet in height. [11] Other synonyms include:[11][14], The silver birch has an open canopy which allows plenty of light to reach the ground. Due to susceptibility to bronze birch borer (BBB), European white birch is not recommended for planting anywhere in this region and usually require removal and/or replacement. The bark on the trunk and branches is golden-brown at first, but later this turns to white as a result of papery tissue developing on the surface and peeling off in flakes, in a similar manner to the closely related paper birch (B. papyrifera). Bark of European white birch G. Lumis: Leaf of European white birch G. Lumis: Scientific Name: Betula pendula. Betula pendula, commonly called silver birch or European white birch, is a graceful medium-sized tree with slender pendulous branches and attractive bark. Many North American texts treat the two species as conspecific (and cause confusion by combining the downy birch's alternative vernacular name 'white birch', with the scientific name B. pendula of the other species), but they are regarded as distinct species throughout Europe. AUDIO. The cultivars marked agm above have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. Use enter to activate. Building the urban forest for 2050. Young branches have whitish resin warts and the twigs are slender, hairless, and often pendulous. Have tree and plant questions? The European white birch (B. pendula, sometimes erroneously called B. alba), also known as silver birch or common birch, has slender, drooping branches and small, sharp-pointed leaves about 6 cm (2 inches) long.It may grow to a height of 15 m on light soils. It is believed that the name “Birch” comes from the Indo-European word “bhereo”which means glossy white. pendula. Facts. Photos. The species is monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and is pollinated by Wind. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. [8], The branches of the silver birch often have tangled masses of twigs known as witch's brooms growing among them, caused by the fungus Taphrina betulina. Paper birch is named for the tree's thin white bark, which often peels in paper like layers from the trunk. [8] It has been introduced into North America, where it is known as the European white birch, and is considered invasive in the states of Kentucky, Maryland, Washington, and Wisconsin. It needs plenty of light and does best on dry, acid soils and is found on heathland, mountainsides, and clinging to crags. The predominant miner on white birch in recent years has been Messa nana. Our trees. Use left and right arrow keys to navigate between menus and submenus. Use up and down arrow keys to explore within a submenu. Stop by, email, or call. Betula pendula is commonly known as the European birch. Tag Archive. Small shrubs that grow on the forest floor include blaeberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and cowberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea). European white birch. Vectors. They are sticky with resin at first, but this dries as they age, leaving small, white scales. The thin sheets of bark that peel off young wood contain a waxy resin and are easy to ignite even when wet. Birch leaf has a history of use for its healthful qualities in traditional herbal practices. Other mycorrhizal associates include Leccinum scabrum and Cantharellus cibarius. The Morton Arboretum is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit that relies on the generosity of members and donors. European White Birch is a mid-sized shade tree native to Eurasia. The silver birch is a hardy tree, a pioneer species, and one of the first trees to appear on bare or fire-swept land. FOOTAGE. This species has white bark that peels slightly. Paper birch has a leaf shaped like the point on a spear, with a more rounded base. [4], The leaves have short, slender stalks and are 3 to 7 cm (1.2 to 2.8 in) long, triangular with broad, untoothed, wedge-shaped bases, slender pointed tips, and coarsely double-toothed, serrated margins. Old trees are often killed by the decay fungus Piptoporus betulinus and fallen branches rot rapidly on the forest floor. The silver birch is a medium-sized deciduous tree that owes its common name to the white peeling bark on the trunk. Weeping white birch, or silver birch as it is also called, is the European birch, Betula pendula. The University of California recommends planting birch species that are less susceptible to leafminers, such as river birch (B. nigra) and European white birch (B. pendula). [20] This disease also affects B. pubescens and in 2000 was reported at many of the sites planted with birch in Scotland during the 1990s. The leaf base of silver birch is usually a right angle to the stalk, while for downy birches, it is rounded. This tree commonly grows with the mycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria in a mutualistic relationship. No need to register, buy now! Water Needs. Affordable and search from millions of royalty free images, photos and vectors. It can in time spread as much as 30 feet across, although usually it will be just 20 feet wide. The White Birch of Europe has been introduced into southern Canada and northern parts of the U.S. The main components in the essential oil of the buds are α-copaene (~10%), germacrene D (~15%), and δ-cadinene (~13%). This tree has an attractive pendulous habit. [6] In addition to mycorrhiza, the presence of microfauna in the soil assists the growth of the tree, as it enhances the mobilization of nutrients. Purple Rain® European White Birch Betula pendula 'Monle' Sku #1236. [4] Historically, the bark was used for tanning. In white birch. It is also native to northern Morocco and has become naturalised in some other parts of the world. Many species of birds and animals are found in birch woodland, the tree supports a wide range of insects and the light shade it casts allows shrubby and other plants to grow beneath its canopy. The European white birch (B. pendula, sometimes erroneously called B. alba), also known as silver birch or common birch, has slender, drooping branches and small, sharp-pointed leaves about 6 cm (2 inches) long. The gray birch has a longer and narrower point on its tip, which makes it almost seem triangular. Marssonia leaf spot is noted by the University of Illinois Cooperative Extension as a disease that affects European white birch and only a few other tree species. European Birch: Cut: Crown-cut Rotary-cut is also generally available. Betula papyrifera (paper birch, also known as (American) white birch and canoe birch ) is a short-lived species of birch native to northern North America. [25], The outer part of the bark contains up to 20% betulin. Smooth in young trees, the bark gets rugged at the base in older trees. The tree likes Sun to half-shade at the location and the soil should be sandy to loamy, dry - moist. European White Birch Betula pendula. The wood is often used for pulpwood and firewood. [5] Some shoots are long and bear the male catkins at the tip, while others are short and bear female catkins. From top level menus, use escape to exit the menu. Fruits are small, winged nutlets held in pendulous catkins. Betula pendula, commonly known as silver birch, warty birch, European white birch,[2] or East Asian white birch,[3] is a species of tree in the family Betulaceae, native to Europe and parts of Asia, though in southern Europe, it is only found at higher altitudes. The pyramidal shape of the crown becomes rounded with a graceful, somewhat pendulous branching habit, and grows to a height of 40 to 50 feet and width of 10 to 20 feet. It has been introduced into North America, where it is known as the European white birch, and is considered invasivein some states in the … The leaves are ovoid and the flowers are yellow. Explore this online platform for Chicago-area residents to share their favorite stories about trees. It has been introduced to North America and planted as an ornamental, it is considered invasive in some areas of the U.S and Canada. Our communities. Silver birch also demands slightly more summer warmth than does downy birch, which is significant in the cooler parts of Europe. Simple, alternate leaves; 1 to 3 inches long.Dark green leaves are rhomboid in shape. Sku #1230. For the racehorse, see, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-3.RLTS.T62535A3115662.en. Birch has a white, papery bark and the leaves are simply, alternate, and wedge shaped with a pleasant aroma. [9], B. pendula is considered a species of least concern by the IUCN Red List. Summary Foliage: Small glossy-green saw-toothed leaves, yellow fall colour Bark: White, non-peeling bark that turns black with age Height: 40 to 50 feet Spread: 10 to 30 feet It grows as single-trunk tree that gradually transforms from pyramidal in shape to a more rounded, oval crown. [6], Several varieties of B. pendula are no longer accepted, including B. pendula var. The bark remains smooth until the tree gets quite large, but in older trees, the bark thickens, becoming irregular, dark, and rugged. Avoid pruning in spring as birches are bleeders and will lose large quantities of sap. [6] 132,907,161 stock photos online. As they are shallow-rooted, they may require water during dry periods. Its range extends into Siberia, China, and southwest Asia in the mountains of northern Turkey, the Caucasus, and northern Iran. Hybrids between the two are known, but are very rare, and being triploid, are sterile. It is noted for attracting wildlife. It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen from July to August. carelica, fontqueri, laciniata, lapponica, meridionalis, microlepis, and parvibracteata, as well as forms Betula pendula f. bircalensis, crispa, and palmeri. Leaf mar, gins are double serrated, leaf tip is long and pointed, Natural Areas Conservation Training Program, Black walnut toxicity (plants tolerant of), Preventing construction damage to trees and shrubs, Trees and shrubs for the four seasons landscape, Sudden Oak Death, Ramorum Blight and Phytophthora ramorum, Eastern United States Wetlands Collection. Birds found in birch woodland include the chaffinch, tree pipit, willow warbler, nightingale, robin, woodcock, redpoll, and green woodpecker. Get expert help from The Morton Arboretum Plant Clinic. It contains around 1% sugars and can be used in a similar way to maple syrup, being drunk fresh, concentrated by evaporation, or fermented into a "wine". European White Birch is a medium-sized deciduous tree. European White Birch is an ideal landscape tree for parks and gardens. The buds are small and sticky, and development is sympodial - the terminal bud dies away and growth continues from a lateral bud. The graceful, arching, open-branched pyramidal form when young matures to a stately oval to rounded form in time. The fine, weeping branches of the tree as well as its beautiful autumn color make it a wonderful addition to your landscape design. Golden brown on twigs and young branches, the bark matures to silvery white with black clefts. Also known as silver birch, the European white birch (Betula pendula) is a tall, slender tree that grows up to 50 feet tall, producing long, swaying branches lined with triangular, tooth-edged leaves. This species has white bark that peels slightly. The European birch is susceptible to a few diseases: canker disease, dieback and Marssonina leaf spot. The leaves can be brewed as tea, infused in oil, and utilized in extract making. The twigs are slender and often pendulous and the leaves are roughly triangular with doubly serrate margins and turn yellow in autumn before they fall. Trees growing in open, sunny areas such as around homes and along roadsides seem to be preferred and frequently suffer the heaviest browning. Its range extends into Siberia, China, and southwest Asia in the mountains of northern Turkey, the Caucasus, and northern Iran. It is planted decoratively in parks and gardens and is used for forest products such as joinery timber, firewood, tanning, racecourse jumps, and brooms. Flowering plants often found in birch woods include primrose (Primula vulgaris), violet (Viola riviniana), bluebell (Hyacinthoides non-scripta), wood anemone (Anemone nemorosa), and wood sorrel (Oxalis acetosella).
2020 european white birch leaf